Scope of the
As IOM has numerous campuses, institutes and colleges affiliated
to it and runs a wide array of programs, it is rich in myriads
of academic activities including research. The main objective
of the JIOM is to serve as a portal by documenting the research
activities. JIOM encourages scientific paper writing and dissemination
of this information. We are of strong belief that each research
conducted and the results henceforth obtained have strong
implication for the community. In this regards, JIOM aims
to be the centerpiece in the whole process of dispersion of
information and knowledge.
The journal accepts scientific articles from various faculties
and students of the Institute of Medicine and its affiliated
institutes or from any other institutes, if the subject matter
addresses important issues. Scientific articles related to
all the disciplines of medicine, public health or health care
management and those articles having impact on health in any
form are accepted, but the editorial board reserves the right
to deny publication if it deems so. Preference is given to
original articles with structured methodology.
Original articles, review articles, articles on P.H.C., medical
education and manpower training and case reports are welcome
• The articles will be accepted for publication only after
clear indication by the author that the manuscript has not
been submitted elsewhere for publication.
• We have a policy to discourage articles that have conflict
of interest in terms of financial assistance or sponsorship.
• Data and references in an article are the sole responsibility
of the author and any attempt to falsify them will be taken
as an offence
• All contributions are judged by the criteria of originality
and scientific content, and preference will be given to original
• The manuscripts are subjected to peer reviews.
• The editors reserve the right of refusing to publish articles
that have been submitted.
• The opinions expressed in the articles are the author’s
own and do not necessarily reflect the views of the publisher
or the editorial board.
It is assumed that the author understands that by submitting
the article to the journal; the article has not been published
in any other journal in the past and also has not been submitted
simultaneously to other journals. All the moral responsibility
of such act lies with the main author and the corresponding
author. Such acts are regarded as an offence. If the author
wishes to withdraw a manuscript, a written letter signed by
all the coauthors, addressed to the ‘Editor in Chief’ should
be submitted to the ‘Editorial Office’.
Manuscripts must be written in clear, concise English and
submitted to the ‘Editorial Office’ of JIOM. Digital submission
in the form of pen drive or through email is required according
to the guidelines issued by the journal. The manuscript should
also include a Forwarding, Authorship and Declaration letter
duly signed. Sample letters can be downloaded from the website
of the journal or requested by email. Corresponding authors
should clearly mention their address along with their email
address and phone number.
Corresponding address of JIOM
The Chief editor or The Executive editor Journal of institute
of medicine (JIOM)
Tribhuvan University Institute of Medicine Maharajgunj, Kathmandu,
Phone: + 977-1-4413187; Fax: +977-1-4422307
The manuscript will be submitted for peer review after the
editors review it for content and basic format. Manuscripts
lacking originality, serious scientific and technical flaws
or significant message can be rejected before it is sent for
peer review. An article has to be written in such a way that
it complies with the format of the journal and authors can
be asked for resubmission after necessary revision.
The review process will take around 2 to 6 months and there
might be further delays during the holiday season. Reviewers
are selected by the editors and information regarding authors
and institution related to the article are withheld from them.
Original articles are sent to two reviewers and case reports
to a single reviewer. In case of conflict, they are sent to
a third reviewer before being rejected or accepted. Authors
are informed regarding reviewers comments and advised for
revisions to the article accordingly. If there is any undue
delay in response, the article will be taken as a resubmission
and the article will have to undergo a whole new review process.
The Editorial board reserves the final right to accept articles
Publication and access
JIOM is published three times a year on April, August and
December. The printed issues can be subscribed from the Editorial
Office and the rates are mentioned below. JIOM grants permission
to read, download, copy and distribute articles published
for free provided they are done in the manner in which they
were published and without any modifications. Authors are
also not charged for submission, processing or publication
of articles. The digital form can be downloaded from the website
conditionally but free of cost. Authors are entitled to a
free copy of the journal in which their articles are published
and it has to be collected from the editorial office within
two months of publication of the issue. Additional copies
have to be bought and are subject to availability.
While every effort is made by the Editorial Team and the press
to avoid inaccurate or misleading information appearing in
JIOM, data within the individual articles and advertisements
are the responsibility of the authors or advertisers concerned.
The JIOM editorial team and the press accept no liability
whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or
misleading data, opinion or statement.
Correspondence regarding subscription should be addressed
to the editorial office.
THE EDITORIAL PROCESS
The Editors review all submitted manuscripts initially. Manuscripts
with insufficient originality, serious scientific and technical
flaws, or lack of a significant message are rejected or if
good article are written poorly then author are requested
to re-submit after the revision. All manuscripts received
are duly acknowledged. Manuscripts are sent to two expert
reviewers without revealing the identity of the contributors
to the reviewers. Each manuscript is meticulously reviewed
by the editor based on the comments from the reviewers and
takes a final decision on the manuscript. The contributors
will be informed about the reviewers' comments and acceptance/rejection
Articles accepted would be copy edited for grammar, punctuation,
print style, and format. Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding
author, which has to be returned within three days. Non response
to proof copy may delay the publication of the same article
or may even get rejected from the journal.
An “author” generally considered as someone who has made substantive
intellectual contributions to a published study, and biomedical
authorship continues to have important academic, social, and
financial implications. An author must take responsibility
for at least one component of the work, should be able to
identify who is responsible for each other component, and
should ideally be confident in their co-authors’ ability and
integrity. Manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with
"Uniform requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical
Journals" developed by the International Committee of
Medical Journal Editors (October 2006).
Title page of the manuscript should contain:
1. Type of manuscript (Original article, Reviews and Case
2. Title of the article.
3. The name(s) of the author(s): family name(s) followed by
4. The name(s) of the department(s) or institution(s) affiliated
to the author(s). The affiliation should comprise the department,
institution, city and nation from which the work originated.
5. The name and full mailing address (including telephone,
fax numbers and e-mail address) of the “Corresponding author”.
6. Total number of pages, photographs and word counts separately
for abstract and for the text (excluding references).
7. Sources of financial support in the form of grants, equipments,
drugs, etc. if any.
8. The running head should be of maximum 40 characters, including
word spaces and should indicate major features of the article.
Conflict of Interest: No/Yes [if yes mention]
To prevent the information on potential conflict of interest
for authors from being overlooked or misplaced, it is necessary
for that information to be part of the manuscript. It should
therefore also be included on a separate page or on pages
immediately following the title page.
JIOM reserves the right to send information on conflict of
interest to reviewers.
Types of manuscript and word limits
In each issue, we publish articles under certain types/ sections.
The types of articles we publish are as follows:
• Original Articles
• Review articles
• Medical education
• Case Reports
• View point
• Letters to the editor
• Original Article: Randomized
controlled trials, interventional studied, studies of screening
and diagnostic test, outcome studies, cost effectiveness analyses,
case-control series and surveys with high response rate. Up
to 2500 words excluding references (up to 30) and abstract
(up to 250).
• Review Article: Systemic critical
assessments of literature and data sources. Up to 3000 words
excluding references (up to >50 but <100) and abstract
• Medical Education: Any article
related to medical education with abstract and references,
word limit may vary.
• Case Report: new/interesting/very
rare cases with clinical significance or implications can
be reported. Up to 1000 words excluding references (up to
10) and abstract (up to 100), up to three photographs.
• Viewpoint: These articles are
personal views and allow you to express your own point of
view on any issues relevant to health. We like these to include
controversial subjects. Up to 800 words excluding reference
(up to 5-8).
• Letter to the Editor: Should
be short, decisive observation. They should not be preliminary
observations that need a later paper for validation. Up to
400 words and 5 references.
Limits for number of images and tables: for all the above-mentioned
categories the number of images and tables should not be more
than one per 500 words.
This should be not more than 250 words on the second page
of the manuscript and be presented in a structured format.
Introduction, Methods, Results and Conclusions.
The abstract should provide the context or background for
the study and should state the a) study’s purposes b) basic
procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals,
observational and analytical methods) c) main findings (giving
specific effect sizes and their statistical significance,
if possible), and d) principal conclusions. It should emphasize
new and important aspects of the study or observations.
Because abstracts are the only substantive portion of the
article indexed in JIOM electronic databases, and the only
portion many readers read, authors need to be careful that
abstracts reflect the content of the article accurately. Unfortunately,
many abstracts disagree with the text of the article.
We request you to provide, and identify as such, 3 to 10 keywords
or short phrases that capture the main topics of the article.
These will assist indexers in cross-indexing the article and
may be published with the abstract. Terms from the Medical
Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus should be used;
if suitable MeSH terms are not yet available for recently
introduced terms, present terms may be used. The keywords
should be arranged in alphabetical order being separated by
commas and a space with the first keyword initially capitalized.
Provide a context or background for the study (i.e., the nature
of the problem and its significance). State the specific purpose
or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study
or observation; the research objective is often more sharply
focused when stated as a question. Both the main and secondary
objectives should be made clear, and any pre-specified subgroup
analyses should be described. Give only strictly pertinent
references and do not include data or conclusions from the
work being reported.
The method section should contain:
a) Study design
b) Duration of study
c) Place of study
d) Ethical approval
e) Patient consent
e) Inclusion and exclusion criteria
g) Statistical analysis and
h) Software used.
The Methods section should include only information that was
available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was
written; all information obtained during the conduct of the
study belongs to the Results section.
Selection and Description of Participants: Describe your selection
of the observational or experimental participants (patients
or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, including
eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the
source population. Because the relevance of such variables
as age and sex to the object of research is not always clear,
authors should explain their use when they are included in
a study report; for example, authors should explain why only
subjects of certain ages were included or why women were excluded.
The guiding principle should be clear about how and why a
study was done in a particular way. When authors use variables
such as race or ethnicity, they should define how they measured
the variables and justify their relevance.
Technical information: Identify the methods, apparatus (give
the manufacturer’s name and address in parentheses), and procedures
in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the
results. Give references to established methods, including
statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief
descriptions for methods that have been published but are
not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods,
give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations.
Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including
generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration.
Authors submitting review manuscripts should include a section
describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting,
and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized
in the abstract.
Ethics, human and animal rights
When reporting research on human beings, the authors must
include an assurance that the work was approved by a medical
ethics committee and that the subjects had given in their
informed consent to participate in the research and the study
was in accordance to the Helsinki declaration of 1975 as revised
in 2000 (available at http://www.wma.net/e/policy/17-c_e.html).
Do not use patient’s names, initials, or hospital numbers,
especially in illustrative material.
When reporting experiments
on animals, indicate whether the institutions or a national
research council’s guide for, or any national law on the care
and use of laboratory animals were followed. Evidence for
approval by a local ethics committee (for both human as well
as animal studies) must be supplied by the authors on demand.
Animal experimental procedures should be as humane as possible
and the details of the anesthetics and analgesics used should
be clearly stated. The ethical standards of experiments must
be in accordance with the guidelines provided by the ‘Committee
for the purpose of control and supervision on experiments
on animals’d CPCSEA. (available at envfor.nic.in/divisions/awd/cpcsea_laboratory.pdf
The journal will not consider any paper which is ethically
unacceptable. A statement on ethics committee permission and
ethical practices must be included in all research articles
under the materials and methods section.
Statistics: Describe statistical methods with enough detail
to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original
data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify
findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement
error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid
relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as
the use of P values, which fails to convey important information
about effect size. References for the design of the study
and statistical methods should be to standard works when possible
(with pages stated). Define statistical terms, abbreviations,
and most symbols. Specify the computer software used.
Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables,
and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings
first. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables
or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations.
Extra or supplementary materials and technical detail can
be placed in an appendix where it will be accessible but will
not interrupt the flow of the text; alternatively, it can
be published only in the electronic version of the journal.
When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric
results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages)
but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives
were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used
to analyze them. Restrict tables and figures to those needed
to explain the argument of the paper and to assess its support.
Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries;
do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid non-technical
uses of technical terms in statistics, such as “random” (which
implies a randomizing device), “normal,” “significant,” “correlations,”
Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by
variables such as age and sex should be included.
Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the
conclusions that follow from them. Do not repeat in detail
data or other material given in the Introduction or the Results
section. For experimental studies, it is useful to begin the
discussion by summarizing briefly the main findings, then
explore possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings,
compare and contrast the results with other relevant studies,
state the limitations of the study, and explore the implications
of the findings for future research and for clinical practice.
Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid
unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported
by the data. It should be short and to the point rather than
a summary of the article. In particular, authors should avoid
making statements on economic benefits and costs unless their
manuscript includes the appropriate economic data and analyses.
Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not
been completed. State new hypotheses when warranted, but clearly
label them as such.
References should be typed double spaced in a separate section
at the end of the manuscript and numbered consecutively in
the order in which they are cited in the text. Published articles
and those in press (state the journal which has accepted them
and enclose a copy of manuscript) may be included. Cite in
the text by the appropriate Arabic numbers in superscript.
Include the last names and initials of all authors [multiple
authors: list up to the first 6 authors followed by et al.],
title of article, name of publications, year published, volume
number, Issue number and inclusive pages. The style and punctuation
of the references should confirm the following examples (i.e.,
Vancouver Style): Please refer to the guidelines at
http://www.icmje.org or http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html
Russell FD, Coppell AL, Davenport AP. In vitro enzymatic processing
of radiolabelled big ET-1 in human kidney as a food ingredient.
Biochem Pharmacol. 1998 Mar 1;55(5):697-701.
Explanation of above
Russell FD, Coppell
AL, Davenport AP. In vitro enzymatic processing of radiolabelled
big ET-1 in human kidney as a food ingredient. Biochem Pharmacol
1998 Mar 1; 55(5):
Sherchand JB, Cross
JH. Parasitic Epidemiological studies of Cyclospora cayetanensis
in Nepal. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth 2004; 35: 1-8.
DuPont HL and Formal SB. Pathogenesis of Escheriachia coli.
N England J Medical. 1971; 344:1-9.
Getzen TE. Health economics: fundamentals of funds. New York:
John Wiley & Sons; 1997.
Explanation of above
Getzen TE. Health
economics: fundamentals and flow of funds. New York: John
Wiley & Sons; 1997.
• Porter RJ, Meldrum BS. Antiepileptic dugs. In: Katzung BG,
editor. Basic and clinical pharmacology. 6th ed. Norwalk (CN):
Appleton and Lange; 1995. p. 361-80.
Tables should be numbered (with Arabic numerals) and each
table should be typed on a separate sheet of paper. Tables
should be self-explanatory and include a brief descriptive
title. Footnotes to tables, indicated by lower case letters
are accepted, but they should not include extensive experimental
Tables capture information concisely, and display it efficiently;
they also provide information at any desired level of detail
and precision. Including data in tables rather than text frequently
makes it possible to reduce the length of the text.
Type or print each table with double spacing on a separate
sheet of paper. Number tables consecutively in the order of
their first citation in the text and supply a brief title
for each. Do not use internal horizontal or vertical lines.
Give each column a short or abbreviated heading. Authors should
place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading.
Explain in footnotes all nonstandard abbreviations. For footnotes
use the following symbols, in sequence:
Identify statistical measures of variations, such as standard
deviation and standard error of the mean.
Be sure that each table is cited in the text.
If you use data from another published or unpublished source,
obtain permission and acknowledge them fully.
Illustrations: Graphs, charts, diagrams or pen drawings must
be drawn by professional hands in Indian ink (black) on white
drawing paper. In case of x-ray, miniature photo prints should
be supplied. Photographs should be supplied in high quality
glossy paper not larger than 203 mm x 254 mm (8" x 10").
In case of microphotograph, stains used and magnification
should be mentioned. Each illustration should bear on its
back the figure number and an arrow indicating the top. All
illustrations should be black and white and should be submitted
in triplicate with suitable legends. We accept electronic
version which should be resolution of 300 dpi, and the dimension
of 640 X 480 to 800 X 600 dimension & picture format should
be JPEG (*.jpg, *.jpeg) or TIFF (*.tif, *.tiff). Pictures
will be published in B/W free of charge. But, if you want
to publish your picture in color, please contact the editorial
board for the cost and payment procedure.
For x-ray films, scans, and other diagnostic images, as well
as pictures of pathology specimens or photomicrographs, send
sharp, glossy, black-and-white or color photographic prints,
usually 127 mm x 173 mm (5" x 7"). Letters, numbers
and symbols on figures should therefore be clear and even
throughout, and of sufficient size that when reduced for publication
each item will still be legible. Figures should be made as
self-explanatory as possible, since many will be used directly
in slide presentations. Titles and detailed explanations belong
in the legends, however, not on the illustrations themselves.
Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Symbols,
arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast
with the background.
If photographs of people are used, either the subjects must
not be identifiable or their pictures must be accompanied
by written permission to use the photograph. Whenever possible,
permission for publication should be obtained.
Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the
order in which they have been first cited in the text. If
a figure has been published, acknowledge the original source
and submit written permission from the copyright holder to
reproduce the material. Permission is required irrespective
of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public
For illustrations in color, ascertain whether the journal
requires color negatives, positive transparencies, or color
prints. Accompanying drawings marked to indicate the region
to be reproduced might be useful to the editor.
Authors should consult the journal about requirements for
figures submitted in electronic formats.
Legends for Illustrations (Figures)
Type or print out legends for illustrations using double spacing,
starting on a separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding
to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters
are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify
and explain each one clearly in the legend. Explain the internal
scale and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.
Numbers and Units of Measurement
Use the decimal point, not a comma. e.g. 5.7. Use a space
not a comma after thousands and multiples thereof, e.g. 10
000. Use SI units (International System of Units) except for
the measurement of blood pressure (mm Hg) and temperature
(degree Celsius). Where measurements were made in non SI units,
give the actual values and units with SI equivalents inserted
in parenthesis at appropriate points.
Use only standard abbreviations; the use of non-standard abbreviations
can be extremely confusing to readers. Avoid abbreviations
in the title. The full term for which an abbreviation stands
should precede its first use in the text unless it is a standard
unit of measurement. Do not use abbreviations like @, &
in the text.
Final checklists before you submit your revised article for
the possible publication in the JIOM:
1. Forwarding letter
• Signed by all contributors
• Previous publication / presentations mentioned
• Source of funding mentioned
• Conflicts of interest disclosed
• Complete author information
• Author for correspondence, with e-mail and telephone numbers
• Identity not revealed in paper except title page (e.g. name
of the institute in material and methods, citing previous
study as ‘our study’, names on figure labels, name of institute
in photographs, etc.)
o If you have submitted the above mentioned documents (1,
2, 3 and 4) when you first submitted your article, then you
don’t need to re-submit it but if there is change in the authorship
or related things, then you have to re-submit it.
o Specific instructions for related HEADINGS have been mentioned
in the sample file for “Manuscript”.
o Please read our published article to get an idea about the
manuscript you submit from our website www.jnma.com.np
General outline for
article presentation and format
Margins 2.5 cm from all four sides
Title page should contain all the desired information
Running title should be provided (not more than 40 characters)
Abstract page should contain the full title of the manuscript
Abstract should be provided (word limit: 150 words for case
reports and 200 words for original articles)
Structured abstract should be provided for an original article
Key words should be provided – arrange them in alphabetical
order (three or more)
Headings in title case (not ALL CAPITALS, not underlined)
References cited in superscript in the text without brackets
after with/without comma (,) or full stop (.)
References according to the journal’s instructions – abide
by the rules of Citation Medicine.
Language and grammar
Uniformity in the
Abbreviations spelt out in full for the first time
Numerals from 1 to 9 spelt out
Numerals at the beginning of the sentence spelt out
Use abbreviated form only after using its full form when
it first appears in the text except abstract.
Tables and figures
No repetition of data in tables/graphs and in text
Actual numbers from which graphs are drawn to be provided
Figures necessary and of good quality (Black and white)
Table and figure numbers in Arabic letters (not Roman)
Labels pasted on back of the photographs (no names written)
Figure legends provided (not more than 40 words)
Patients’ privacy maintained (if not, written permission
Credit note for borrowed figures/tables provided
1. Uniform requirements
for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals:
manuscript preparation and submission: preparing a manuscript
for submission to a biomedical journal. [Online]. 2009 [cited
2010 Jan 15];
2. Journal of Nepal
Medical Association. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2009 Apr-Jun; 48(174).
3. Nepal population
report. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Health and Population,
Population division, Kathmandu, Nepal. 2007;77-100
4. Sami Z, Khan MA.
Aetiological agents of viral diarrhoea. Pak J Med Res. 1994;
5. Mathews MS, Pereira
SM, Kirubakarran, Mathan MM. Role of viruses in acute gastroenteritis
in infants and young children at Vellore, South India. J Trop
Paed. 1996; 42:151-3.